Herbal Drug Technology
S S Agrawal, M Paridhavi
180 x 240 mm
Year of Publishing
Territorial Rights
Universities Press

The second edition of the textbook Herbal Drug Technology, based on the curriculum of various universities, caters to both bachelor''s and master''s courses in pharmacy and allied sciences. It contains detailed information on Indian systems of medicine, herbal therapeutics, crude drugs and medicinal botany.
New to this edition are topics such as herbal cosmetics, nutraceuticals, chemotaxonomy, recent changes in in vivo anticancer screening models and screening of cardiac glycosides, and methods of literature search and patenting of herbal drugs.

Special features:

  • Designed according to the curriculum of undergraduate and postgraduate courses in pharmacy of various universities in India and abroad
  • Incorporates recent advances in technology
  • Provides a comparative study of dosage forms in ayurveda and modern medicine
  • Includes a detailed analysis of more than 60 phytopharmaceuticals
  • Discusses standardization of herbal drugs—WHO protocol, different methods used for standardization, quality control standards for herbal extracts and validation of herbal products

S. S. Agrawal , PhD (AIIMS), FICAI, Pro-Vice Chancellor and DG (Academics, Innovation and Research) and Director, Amity Institute of Pharmacy, Amity University, Noida, Uttar Pradesh, has more than 40 years of experience in teaching and research. Professor Agrawal served as Founder Director, Delhi Institute of Pharmaceutical Science and Research, New Delhi, for about 20 years and was instrumental in the setting up of Delhi Pharmaceutical Sciences & Research University (DPSARU). He is a member of several committees including AICTE, UGC, CSIR, ICMR, INMAS, CCRAS, NAAC and ICRI. He has been conferred with several honours including Honorary Foreign Fellowship by the Romanian Academy of Medical Sciences (2010), Distinguished ServiceAward by the International Academy of Cardiovascular Sciences, Canada (2010), Principal of theYear Award by the Association of PharmaceuticalTeachers (2007), Honorary DSc from Rajiv GandhiTechnical University , Bhopal (2007), Lifetime AchievementAward by Indian Pharmacological Society (2006), Fellowship of International Society of Heart Research (2003), among others.

M. Paridhavi,, Principal, Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Pharmacy,Trikaripur, Kasaragod District, Kerala, obtained his masters degree in pharmacognosy with distinction from Karnataka University and his PhD in pharmaceutical sciences from DIPSAR, University of Delhi.
During 1995–2005, he was a faculty member at VV Sangh’sTogariVeeramallapa Memorial College of Pharmacy, Bellary, Karnataka. He is the co-author of the book, Clinically Useful Herbal Drugs , along with Professor S. S. Agrawal.

Second Message
First Message
Preface to the Second Edition
Preface to the First Edition
1 Introduction to Medicinal Plants
1.1 Illustrative Examples of Plants Used as Drugs
2 Indian Systems of Medicine
2.1 Ayurveda
2.2 Unani System of Medicine
2.3 Homeopathic System of Medicine
2.4 Siddha
2.5 Yoga and Naturopathy
3 Herbal Therapeutics: From Ancient Times to the 21st Century
3.1 The Ancient World
3.2 The World of Greece and Rome
3.3 The Long Interregnum
3.4 Twentieth Century
3.5 Prospects for the Twenty-first Century
4 Essentials of Crude Drugs
5 Medicinal Botany
5.1 Plant Taxonomy
5.2 Morphological Considerations of Crude Drugs
5.3 General Considerations
5.4 Histology
6 In vitro Culture of Medicinal Plants: Tissue Culture
6.1 Requirements for Plant Tissue Culture
6.2 Setting Up a Tissue Culture Lab
6.3 Basic Laboratory Procedures
6.4 Processing of Plant Tissue Culture
6.5 Growth Profile
6.6 Growth Measurement
6.7 Plant Tissue Culture Methods
6.8 Root Culture
6.9 Shoot Tip Culture and Leaf Culture
6.10 Culture of Flowers, Ovaries and Ovules
6.11 Seed Culture
6.12 Nucellus Culture
6.13 Embryo Culture
6.14 Anther and Pollen Culture
6.15 Callus Culture
6.16 Types of Tissue Culture
6.17 Tissue Culture of Medicinal Plants
6.18 Applications of Plant Tissue Culture
7 Systematic Examination of Powdered Drugs
7.1 Examination of Organised Drugs
7.2 Examination of Unorganised Drugs
8.1 Application of Chromatography and Spectroscopy in Plant Drug Analysis
8.1 Chromatography
8.2 Infrared Spectroscopy
8.3 Ultraviolet Spectroscopy
8.4 Differential Scanning Calorimeter
8.5 NMR Spectroscopy
8.6 Mass Spectroscopy
8.7 Spectral Properties of Herbal Products
8.2 Extraction, Isolation and Analysis of Phytopharmaceuticals
8.8 Infusion
8.9 Decoction
8.10 Digestion
8.11 Maceration
8.12 Percolation
8.13 Successive Solvent Extraction
8.14 Supercritical Fluid Extraction
8.15 Steam Distillation
8.16 Headspace Techniques
8.17 Sepbox
8.18 Selection of a Suitable Extraction Process
8.19 Carbohydrates
8.20 Proteins
8.21 Alkaloids
8.22 Glycosides
8.23 Carotenoids
8.24 Tannins
8.25 Oleoresins
8.26 Essential Oils
9 Screening Methods Used for Herbal Drugs
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Screening Methods for Anti-fertility Agents
9.3 Screening Methods for Anterior Pituitary Hormones
9.4 Screening Methods for Anti-diabetic Drugs
9.5 Screening Methods for Thyroid and Anti-thyroid Drugs
9.6 Estimation of Various Hormones Involved in Reproduction by ELISA
9.7 Cardiovascular Screening Methods
9.8 Selection of an Animal Model for Cardiovascular Screening
9.9 Screening Methods for Anti-anginal Drugs
9.10 Screening Methods for Anti-hypertensive Drugs
9.11 Indirect Blood Pressure or Non-Invasive Blood Pressure (NIBP)
9.12 Screening Methods for Anti-arrhythmic Drugs
9.13 Screening Methods for Cardiac Glycosides
9.14 Langendorff Heart System
9.15 Screening Methods for Diuretics
9.16 Neuropharmacology
9.17 Screening of Anti-epileptic Agents from Herbal Sources
9.18 Screening Methods for Analgesic Activity
9.19 Screening of Herbal Drugs for Antipyretic Activity
9.20 Screening Methods for Anti-cataract Agents
9.21 Screening Methods for Anti-glaucoma Agents
9.22 Screening of Herbal Drugs for Anti-cancer Activity
9.23 Screening Methods for Evaluation of Hepatoprotective Agents
9.24 Screening Methods for Anti-inflammatory Drugs
9.25 Screening Methods for Anti-ulcer Drugs
9.26 Screening of Anti-asthmatic Drugs
9.27 Screening Methods for Anti-lithiotic Drugs
9.28 Development and Evaluation of Transdermal Drug Delivery Systems (TDDS) of Herbal Drugs
9.29 Development and Evaluation of Intra-uterine Contraceptive Devices (IUCDs) for Herbal Drugs
9.30 Toxicity Studies
9.31 Committee for the Purpose of Control and Supervision on Experiments on Animals (CPCSEA)
9.32 Clinical Trials
10 Standardisation of Herbal Drugs
10.1 Importance of Standardisation and Problems Involved in the Standardisation of Herbs
10.2 Standardisation of Single Drugs and Compound Formulations
10.3 WHO Guidelines for Quality Standardised Herbal Formulations
10.4 Estimation of the Parameter Limits Used for Standardisation
10.5 Herbal Extracts
11 Herbal Formulations: A Comparative Study of Ayurvedic and Modern Dosage Forms
11.1 Classification
11.2 General Considerations
11.3 Different Stages of Herbal Formulation
11.4 Dosage Forms
12 Herbal Cosmetics
12.1 Source, Historical Background and Present Status
12.2 Raw Materials: Oils, Waxes, Gums, Hydrophillic Colloids, Colours, Perfumes, Protective Agents, Bleaching Agents, Preservatives, Antioxidants and Other Auxillary Agents
12.3 Formulation Aspects of Incorporating Herbal Extracts in Various Preparations
13 Nutraceuticals: A Modern Approach
13.1 Introduction and Classification
13.2 Nutraceuticals and Diseases
13.3 Immune Boosters and Anti-inflammatory Agents
13.4 Inflammatory Disorders
13.5 Degenerative Diseases
13.6 Current Status and Legal Aspects
14 Chemotaxonomy
14.1 Chemotaxonomy
14.2 Origin and Chronological Development of Chemotaxonomy (History)
14.3 Phytoconstituents Useful in Chemotaxonomy
14.4 Plant Serology and Serotaxonomy
14.5 Chemotaxonomy in Lower Plants
14.6 Prospects and Problems of Chemotaxonomy
15 The Role of Literature Search in Medicinal Plant Research
15.1 Definition
15.2 Purpose of Literature Search
15.3 The Internet as an Information Search Tool in Phytopharmacological Research
15.4 Planning a Search
15.5 Electronic Databases
15.6 Some Plant-related Databases
15.7 Searching Techniques
16 Patenting of Herbal Drugs
16.1 Definition
16.2 Benefits of Patent Protection
16.3 Patent Application
16.4 Plant Breeders’ Rights
16.5 Important Points to be Kept in Mind while Drafting and Filing a Patent
16.6 Indian and International Patent Laws and Proposed Amendments
16.7 The Trade-related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPs)
Glossary 758
Glossary of Botanical Terms 761
Glossary of Medical Terms 769
Bibliography 777
Index 791
List of Plates
Plate 1a Callus culture
Plate 1b Plantlets formed from callus culture
Plate 2 Shoot elongation and rooting of in vitro regenerated shoots
Plate 3 Plantlets acclimatised to greenhouse conditions
Plate 4 Immobilised beads

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